Campaign Updates

Vacancy: Digital Resources Coordinator at Scottish Policy & Research Exchange

If you are interested in helping academics and policymakers talk to each other more effectively and you know how to make that work in digital space, then this job is for you. SPRE is looking for someone who can help manage the project’s own digital tools and also offer guidance to our research and policy… Read more »

James Wilsdon FAcSS to lead new RoRi Initiative

The Academy of Social Science and its Campaign is delighted to congratulate our Fellow Professor James Wilsdon on his new role as the director of the new Research on Research Institute (RoRI). RoRI is a new partnership between Wellcome Trust, the universities of Sheffield and Leiden, and the technology firm Digital Science, which aims to… Read more »

Press Release: Bobby Duffy appointed as Chair of the Campaign for Social Science

18 September 2019, London: Professor Bobby Duffy, Director of The Policy Institute and Professor of Public Policy at King’s College London, will be leading the Campaign for Social Science from November 2019. He replaces Professor James Wilsdon, who kindly returned to the role, as interim Chair, following the relocation of Professor Shamit Saggar to Perth,… Read more »

The Academy of Social Science and its Campaign welcome the government’s announcement of a two-year post-study work visa for international students

The Academy of Social Science and its Campaign for Social Science welcome the government’s announcement that it will reintroduce the two-year post-study work visa for international students.  International students play an integral role in the health and vitality of the UK higher education sector and contribute greatly to the UK economy during, and after, their… Read more »

The Academy of Social Science has learned that the government’s recently announced plans to introduce a new fast-track system for Tier 1 visas (for ‘exceptional talent’) will apply only to STEM

The Academy of Social Science has learned that the government’s recently announced plans to introduce a new fast-track system for Tier 1 visas (for ‘exceptional talent’) will apply only to individuals with science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM) skills.  We are, of course, seeking to make representations about this. In the meantime, Sharon Witherspoon, Head… Read more »

Press Release: The Academy of Social Sciences responds to the Government’s plan to devise a new ‘fast track’ visa system for global science talent

9 August 2019, London: Yesterday, 8 August 2019, the Government made an announcement about its plans to develop a ‘fast track’ visa system for global science talent, and confirmed some interim plans for replacing EU Horizon 2020 funding through the UKRI if the UK left the EU without a deal. While the Academy of Social… Read more »

Making Waves or Drowned Out? The Impact of Women in/on Political Science

by Fiona Mackay (This blog is derived from the Women in Social Science Conference at City, University of London on 3 April 2019. Chaired by Professor Sue Scott FAcSS, the conference was organised by the Academy of Social Sciences, its Campaign for Social Science and NatCen, and supported by ESRC and Palgrave Macmillan.) While there has… Read more »

Am I an Asian Woman or a Woman Who is Asian? A Personal Reflection Being a Woman of Colour in the Academia

by Shan-Jan Sarah Liu (This blog is derived from the Women in Social Science Conference at City, University of London on 3 April 2019. Chaired by Professor Sue Scott FAcSS, the conference was organised by the Academy of Social Sciences, its Campaign for Social Science and NatCen, and supported by ESRC and Palgrave Macmillan.) In 2007,… Read more »

On the Need for Collective Action and Sustained Attention

by Katherine Twamley (This blog is derived from the Women in Social Science Conference at City, University of London on 3 April 2019. Chaired by Professor Sue Scott FAcSS, the conference was organised by the Academy of Social Sciences, its Campaign for Social Science and NatCen, and supported by ESRC and Palgrave Macmillan.) I have benefited… Read more »

Women in Social Science: The Personal and the Statistical

By Jil Matheson (This blog is derived from the Women in Social Science Conference at City, University of London on 3 April 2019. Chaired by Professor Sue Scott FAcSS, the conference was organised by the Academy of Social Sciences, its Campaign for Social Science and NatCen, and supported by ESRC and Palgrave Macmillan.) In celebrating women’s… Read more »

The Importance of the Social Sciences for the Industrial Strategy

“The social sciences have a vital role to play in delivering the Industrial Strategy and helping the UK economy grow.  They have already helped shape the strategy itself, and they can help us better understand the social conditions and behavioural changes needed to foster growth in the future, raise productivity, and deliver new technologies to… Read more »

Meet the Board: Kelly Beaver

Kelly Beaver is the Managing Director of Ipsos MORI’s Public Affairs business in the United Kingdom. She is responsible for a team of c.250 staff located throughout the UK including in London, Manchester and Edinburgh. Her team provides robust research and analysis to help clients across every area of government policy to monitor and understand… Read more »

Vacancy: Chair of the Campaign for Social Science

The Academy of Social Sciences is seeking a new Chair for the Campaign for Social Science, to start on 1 November 2019. The Campaign is an integral part of the Academy and leads on its public-facing advocacy for social science.  It is a strong outward-facing voice for the Academy. The Chair of the Campaign is… Read more »

Reflections on an uplifting and sobering conference

by Nancy Kelley Deputy Chief Executive and Director of the Policy Research Centre, NatCen. Listening to such a talented group of women over the course of an afternoon at the Women In Social Science conference was uplifting and sobering in equal parts. The quality of thinking, the honesty, and the passion of the speakers was uplifting.… Read more »

Women in Social Science Conference 2019

“Women have made a huge contribution to the social sciences over the past 50 years. But this contribution is still not fully recognized,” said Professor Sue Scott FAcSS in her opening remarks as the chair of the Women in Social Science conference on 3 April 2019. The conference was held in partnership with NatCen and… Read more »

Professor Shamit Saggar CBE FAcSS steps down as Chair of the Campaign for Social Sciences

Professor Shamit Saggar CBE FAcSS has been at the helm of the Campaign for Social Science since September 2017. A vocal advocate for the social sciences, he has championed the use of research to help make policy and practice more evidence-based. Shamit oversaw a time of significant growth for the Campaign – both in terms… Read more »

Dr Rita Gardner CBE FAcSS joins the Academy of Social Sciences as Chief Executive

The Academy of Social Sciences and its Campaign for Social Science is delighted to welcome Dr Rita Gardner CBE FAcSS as its new Chief Executive. Rita brings to the role more than 25 years’ experience of leadership and organisational development in the learned society and professional body sector in the UK. She is committed to… Read more »

Director for SPIRE joins the Campaign

The New Year saw the arrival of Nick Bibby as Director of the Campaign’s newest project, the Scottish Policy Innovation and Research Exchange (SPIRE). Nick is based in Scotland and will be working with colleagues at the Royal Society of Edinburgh, the Scottish Government and Parliament, and a growing network of universities across Scotland to… Read more »

Paul Johnson CBE FAcSS spoke at the CfSS/Sage Publishing Annual Lecture 2018

This year the Campaign for Social Science/Sage Publishing annual lecture was delivered by Paul Johnson CBE FAcSS, Director of the Institute for Fiscal Studies and Visiting Professor of Economics at University College London. Paul Johnson has published and broadcast extensively on the economics of public policy, with a particular focus on income distribution, public finances, pensions,… Read more »

The Campaign welcomes two new board members

The Campaign for Social Science is delighted to welcome two new members to its board, Professor Alison Park and Dr. Chris Tyler. Professor Alison Park is Director of CLOSER at the UCL Institute of Education. CLOSER brings together eight longitudinal studies, the British Library and the UK Data Service to share resources and expertise, provide… Read more »

SLF: Leadership challenges and opportunities

The third Strategic Leadership Forum (SLF) was held at The University of Liverpool London offices on 20 June 2018. The SLF brought together members of our Supporters’ Scheme, including University of Essex, King’s College London, University of Manchester and University of Southampton. The topic of the third SLF was “Leadership Challenges and Opportunities in Social… Read more »

Campaign’s Chair Professor Shamit Saggar champions evidence-based policymaking in interview to Research Professional

Campaigning for justice Seven months into his role at the helm of the Campaign for Social Science, Shamit Saggar tells Eleni Courea how he champions evidence-based policymaking. Shamit Saggar is waging a war against confusion. The head of the Campaign for Social Science is passionate about solving many problems; but at this moment he is… Read more »

Campaign supports new report on ‘The Role of Research in the UK Parliament’.

Professor Shamit Saggar CBE FAcSS, Chair of the Campaign for Social Science, welcomes a new report on ‘The Role of Research in the UK Parliament’.

Strategic Leadership Forum examines role of social science in Industrial Strategy

The first meeting of the Campaign’s newly convened Strategic Leadership Forum was held on 10 October.

New chair to speak at debate on global grand challenges

Professor Shamit Saggar, the new chair of the Campaign for Social Science, will join a high profile panel to explore the role social science research in tackling some of the global grand challenges.

Statement on appointment of new ESRC head

The Academy of Social Sciences congratulates Professor Jennifer Rubin on her appointment as Executive Chair of the Economic and Social Research Council.

Campaign launches online tool-kit to link evidence and policymaking in Wales

The Campaign for Social Science has today launched a new online tool-kit Pathways to impact: a practical guide for researchers, in collaboration with Cardiff University. The online tool-kit is designed to help new researchers improve their political impact by providing guidance to link social science evidence more closely to the policy making process, with a… Read more »

Join our policy team

The Academy of Social Sciences and its Campaign for Social Science The Academy of Social Sciences is the national academy of academics, learned societies and practitioners in the social sciences. Its mission is to promote social science in the UK for the public benefit. It is composed of around 1200 individual Fellows, 43 member Learned… Read more »

Academy and Campaign welcome UKRI board

The Academy and Campaign welcome the announcement of the non-executive members of UK Research and Innovation (UKRI).

Shamit Saggar to lead the Campaign for Social Science

Professor Shamit Saggar CBE FAcSS has been appointed to lead the Campaign for Social Science from 1st October 2017.

Campaign welcomes initial guidelines for REF2021

The Campaign welcomes HEFCE’s publication of the initial guidelines for REF2021.

We’re hiring! Supporter Relations Officer (Fundraiser)

The Campaign for Social Science, part of the Academy of Social Sciences, is looking for a Fundraiser to pursue fundraising pledges from existing supporters, gain new pledges and develop relationships. This is an exciting time for the Campaign and a key moment in its growth and development. We were established in 2011 to promote the… Read more »

Campaign announces social science pipeline project

The Campaign is once again teaming up with partners SAGE Publishing on its latest research project looking at pathways into different social science disciplines at university and employment prospects for social science graduates.

Academy welcomes Smith Review

The Academy of Social Sciences has today welcomed Professor Sir Adrian Smith’s Review of Post 16 Mathematics which raises a number of important points related to the need for maths and data skills beyond those groups that go on to study maths and science at university. The report rightly determines that data and number skills… Read more »

Select Committee Chairs Announced

Select Committees announced new and returning chairs last week.

Academy and Campaign welcome new chair of Science and Technology Committee

The Academy and Campaign welcome the new chair of the House of Commons Science and Technology Committee.

Statement on Sir Mark Walport’s speech on UK Research and Innovation

The Campaign for Social Science welcomes the speech on 4 July by Sir Mark Walport, Chief Executive-Designate of UKRI, in which he said that investment in all areas of research will be needed if the UK is to maintain its global excellence. Many of the issues he identified are those where social science is essential,… Read more »

Work with us! Supporter Relations Officer vacancy

The Campaign for Social Science is looking for a proactive person to organise our fundraising from existing supporters, recruit new support and develop relationships. The Campaign was established in 2011 to promote the use of social science in public policy making and in wider society. It relies on funding from a broad supporter base. This… Read more »

Social scientists honoured

Eight Fellows of the Academy of Social Sciences have been recognised in the 2017 Birthday Honours List for their contributions in various academic and professional fields, from tackling climate change and research into end of life care, to education and services to vulnerable people. Roger Goodman, Chair of the Academy of Social Sciences, said: “We… Read more »

Academy and Campaign Statement on the 2017 General Election

The Academy and Campaign respond to 2017 General Election result.

Academy and Campaign response to Technopolis report

The Academy of Social Sciences and its Campaign for Social Science welcome the publication of The role of EU funding UK research and innovation, jointly commissioned from Technopolis by the Academy of Medical Sciences, the British Academy, the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Royal Society.

Statement on students in net migration targets

Statement from the Campaign on the amendment to keep students out of net migration targets.

Marching for science

Join us on the March for Science on April 22.

Response to the Industrial Strategy Green Paper

The Campaign for Social Science and Academy of Social Sciences submitted a joint response to the April consultation on the UK Government Green Paper on Industrial Strategy.

Response to the Triggering of Article 50

The Academy and Campaign respond to the triggering of Article 50.

Campaign welcomes Metcalfe ‘science priorities for Brexit’

The Campaign for Social Science warmly welcomes the statement made today by Stephen Metcalfe MP, Chair of the Parliamentary and Scientific Committee and the House of Commons Science and Technology Committee, outlining the ‘Science priorities for Brexit’.

Chair of the Campaign for Social Science

The Campaign for Social Science is seeking a new Chair towards the end of 2017.

Academy welcomes HE & R Bill amendments

Minister for Universities, Science, Research and Innovation, Jo Johnson, announced today (24th February) several amendments to the government’s Bill on HE and Research. Professor James Wilsdon FACSS, Chair of the Academy’s Campaign for Social Science welcomed the announcement saying, “Full marks to Jo Johnson for listening and acting on the community’s concerns. We warmly welcome the… Read more »

Brexit and UK (Social) Science: Developments to date

The Academy of Social Sciences and its Campaign for Social Science have today (February 20) published a new briefing note on Brexit.

Academy and Campaign respond to Prime Minister’s statement on Brexit objectives

The Academy and Campaign have responded to the Prime Minister’s January 17 statement on Brexit objectives.

It’s official: inequality, climate change and social polarisation are bad for you

Professor Jonathan Michie FAcSS has written about this year’s World Economic Forum Global Risks Report identifying inequality, social polarisation and climate change as the trends that will shape global developments over the next ten years. The article originally appeared in The Conversation. This year’s Global Risks Report from the World Economic Forum warns that rising… Read more »

‘Fake news’–why people believe it and what can be done to counter it

In the wake of Brexit and the election of Donald Trump in the US, “fake news” has emerged as a pervasive, and potentially subversive, phenomenon. Here, Professor Simeon Yates, Director of the Institute of Cultural Capital, a strategic collaboration between the University of Liverpool and Liverpool John Moores University, looks at its different forms, the effect of social media, and what this means for our democracies.

Head of Policy on the BBC World Service

Sharon Witherspoon FAcSS, Head of Policy at the Academy and Campaign, was recently interviewed on the BBC World Service on evidence in policymaking.

Academy and Campaign respond to House of Commons Education Committee inquiry on the impact of Brexit on higher education

The Academy and Campaign have issued a joint response to the House of Commons Education Committee inquiry on the impact of Brexit on higher education.

Research plays crucial role in improving education for disadvantaged pupils

Mike Kane to launch new booklet making the case for social science research benefits to education.

Academy and Campaign publish briefing on Higher Education and Research Bill ahead of Lords debate

The Academy of Social Sciences and its Campaign for Social Science have published a new briefing on part 3 of the Higher Education and Research Bill ahead of its second reading in the House of Lords on December 6.

Autumn Statement: Response from the Campaign

The Campaign has responded to the Chancellor’s Autumn Statement

Greater access to data will improve health outcomes, says MP

Wider use of patient data will lead to better health outcomes, Jo Churchill, MP for Bury St Edmonds and chair of the All Party Parliamentary Group on Personalised Medicine, said Wednesday at a roundtable discussion sponsored by the Campaign for Social Science.

Lords Science and Technology Committee evidence session addresses Brexit concerns raised by Academy and Campaign

In an oral evidence session before the Lords Science and Technology Committee on Tuesday, Universities and Science Minister Jo Johnson was questioned on some of the pressing concerns posed by Brexit for Higher Education, science and research.

Enough of experts? Data, democracy and the future of expertise

Beth Simone Noveck, Director of The Governance Lab, will deliver this year’s Campaign/SAGE Annual Lecture on Tuesday, 22 November.

Scientists are giving advice, but are governments listening?

In an article originally appearing in the Guardian, Sir Peter Gluckman and James Wilsdon argue the need for evidence to influence policy in addressing many of the pressing social, economic and environmental challenges on the world stage. Read the full article below.

Campaign publishes annual report

The Campaign has published its annual report covering the period from 2015 to early 2016.

Academy and Campaign publish recommendations to support UK science in Brexit negotiations

In a briefing note addressing the consequences of the “prolonged period of uncertainty” in the three months since the EU referendum vote on June 23, the Academy and Campaign make recommendations about immediate steps the government should take to support UK science and ensure the “long-term health of research is kept to the fore” during the Brexit negotiation process.

Campaign in Scotland to host Presidential Question Time

Some of Scotland’s foremost scholars of American politics will discuss the result following the US Presidential elections on November 10.

Academy and Campaign host successful Summer Programme

In June and July, the Academy and its Campaign held their first-ever Summer Programme series, covering topical and timely issues of social science significance. As we wrap up a successful season, we take a look back at the four headline events.

Jon Deer joins the Campaign for Social Science board

Jon Deer, deputy director of the Research Division and team leader for the Research Development team at LSE, has accepted an invitation to join the Board.

Academy publishes professional briefing on implications of EU referendum

The Academy of Social Sciences has published a professional briefing on the implications of the EU referendum for UK social science.

Academy and Campaign announce Summer Programme of events

The Academy and its Campaign have announced a full lineup of events for the summer season, covering a range of topical and engaging issues.

A nation at unease with itself? Britain on the eve of the EU referendum

Professor John Curtice considers how the problems of the polling industry and the social tensions exposed by the referendum might play themselves out in nine days’ time… and beyond.

The Rise of ‘No Religion’ – lunchtime talk with Linda Woodhead

Professor Linda Woodhead FAcSS will deliver a lunchtime talk at the Academy of Social Sciences on Wednesday, July 20, on the rise of “no religion”.

After the EU Referendum – where next for social science?

Join Professor James Wilsdon FAcSS (Chair); Professor Jane Elliott FAcSS (ESRC); Professor Graeme Reid (UCL), Jon Deer (LSE and EASSH) and Professor Antje Wiener FAcSS (University of Hamburg) for a panel discussion on the implications of the EU referendum result.

Academy and Campaign respond to Northern Powerhouses and Midlands Engine Inquiry

The Academy and Campaign issued a response Friday 6th May to the Business, Innovation and Skills Committee’s Powerhouses and Engines Inquiry.

Academy of Social Sciences submission to the Commons Science and Technology Committee’s Science Communication Inquiry

The Academy and its Campaign have responded to the Science and Technology Committee’s Inquiry into Science Communication.

The Academy of Social Sciences responds to the Cabinet Office consultation on Better use of Data in government

The Academy of Social Sciences has responded to the Cabinet Office consultation on Better use of Data in government.

DEADLINE EXTENDED: The Contribution of Social Sciences to Health – Call for Evidence

The deadline for submission has been extended to Friday 6th May 2016. Call for evidence The Campaign for Social Science is commencing a new project, The Health of People, to demonstrate the vital role of social science research and practice in contributing to health and addressing specific issues facing the NHS, UK healthcare, and health… Read more »

“Arbitrary mismatches” of universal credit ignore realities of low income

Issues of roles and relationships, and methods of managing money in low-income families, have not been explored enough, or qualitative research findings exploited sufficiently, in analyses of Universal Credit, argues Fran Bennett.

To improve people’s health, listen to social scientists

This piece by Professor Susan Michie FAcSS, Chair of the Health of People Working Group, also appears on the Times Higher Education blog: With an ageing population, a rise in long-term conditions, growing health inequalities, and a lack of political will to ensure that funding is increased in line with demand, the UK’s National Health… Read more »

The Election: One Year On: Policy change and challenges for Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities

Council of Deans of Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities of the UK (DASSH UK) Summer Conference 2016 12-13 May 2016 Grand Connaught Rooms, Central London Confirmed speakers include: Nicola Dandridge (UUK), Laura Dyer (Arts Council), James Wilsdon, BIS representative and conference dinner speaker Rick Rylance Members fee £125 (including conference dinner) For full programme please… Read more »

“Don’t drink and tweet”: ethical issues in social science research on social media

The Academy hosted a conference on the role of ethics in social media research on Monday, March 21 in London.

Academy responds to Lord Stern’s Review of the Research Excellence Framework

The Academy responds to Lord Stern’s Review of the Research Excellence Framework.

Policy at the Academy of Social Sciences and its Campaign for Social Science

Sharon Witherspoon MBE FAcSS takes up role as Acting Head of Policy across both the Academy and Campaign.

Professor John Urry FAcSS

The Academy and its Campaign are deeply saddened to learn of the recent unexpected death of Professor John Urry FAcSS.

The Contribution of Social Sciences to Health – Call for Evidence

Call for evidence The Campaign for Social Science is commencing a new project, The Health of People, to demonstrate the vital role of social science research and practice in contributing to health and addressing specific issues facing the NHS, UK healthcare, and health more broadly. It will set out major problems facing UK health, and… Read more »

Making the Case for the Social Sciences 11: Dementia – Launch 15th March 2016

The eleventh issue in the Academy’s series showcasing the impact made by social science research looks at the topic of dementia and will be launched at a lunchtime seminar at the House of Commons on Tuesday 15th March 2016 with an invited audience of policymakers and influencers. All Fellows and member societies should also have… Read more »

Nurse review recommends harnessing a mythical beast

In a piece originally appearing in Research Fortnight, our Head of Policy David Walker says Paul Nurse’s plan for the research councils lays out a crucial role for the research community. But it’s doubtful any such body exists. Read the full article below.

The Business of People, one year on

David Walker reflects on the Business of People report one year on from its publication.

Anti-lobbying clause will undermine evidence, policy and the public interest, says Chair

James Wilsdon and Sarah Main explain how a Cabinet Office proposal to ban organisations receiving government funding from using those funds to influence policy threatens to put the brakes on the research impact agenda.

Behavioural sciences needed to address gaps in health and social care, says Chief Medical Officer

Professor Dame Sally Davies highlights the importance of behavioural sciences in addressing gaps in health research and social care.

Academy publishes Annual Report

The Academy of Social Sciences has published its first ever Annual Report, covering the period from 2014 to September 2015.

Academy and Campaign respond to BIS Higher Education Green Paper

The Academy and its Campaign have submitted their response to the BIS consultation on higher education: teaching excellence, social mobility and student choice.

Academy responds to BBC Trust on statistics

The Academy of Social Sciences and its Campaign for Social Science have submitted evidence to the BBC Trust’s Impartiality Review of the BBC’s use of statistics chaired by Dame Jil Matheson FAcSS. Read the full document here.

Senior social scientists honoured

Six senior social scientists, Fellows of the Academy of Social Sciences, have been recognized in the 2016 New Year Honours for their contributions to social science and to public life: Professor Dame Henrietta Moore DBE FAcSS, Director, Institute for Global Prosperity and Chair, Culture, Philosophy and Design, University College London. For services to Social Sciences.… Read more »

Media scepticism sows doubt, not progress, on climate change

The current lack of attention by government and opposition, and the prioritising of the economy over all other areas of state responsibility, has led to a relative media silence on climate change.

Leading social scientists meet to plan Health of People report

Leading social science academics and practitioners have begun work on the Campaign’s next major report, The Health of People.

Vacancy – Senior Policy Adviser

The Academy of Social Sciences and its Campaign for Social Science are seeking an individual well-versed in social science and policy to undertake policy formation for both organisations. You’ll play a vital and exciting part in our work for and on behalf of social science and be a key member of our small, friendly team.… Read more »

It’s every Whitehall department for itself in spending review scuffle

On the clock counting down to George Osborne’s spending statement on 25 November, it’s five to midnight. The most goody two-shoes departments settled with the Treasury first. They include communities and local government, leaving councils in England to infer that if the department can lop off a third of its budget for staffing and buildings, prospects for its grant to councils are grim.

Academy Housewarming – Integration in an era of superdiversity

Professor Jenny Phillimore will give a talk at the inauguration of the Academy’s new offices at 33 Finsbury Square on Wednesday, November 4

BIS blueprint heightens fears for research funding

A leaked consultation on the future of the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills suggests that November’s spending review will be accompanied by a radical overhaul of the research funding system, Professor James Wilsdon, Chair of the Campaign for Social Science, writes in the Guardian. Concerns highlighted by Professor Wilsdon include the future of quality-related… Read more »

Campaign welcomes new Shadow Science and Universities Ministers

The Campaign for Social Science welcomes the opportunity of dialogue with Labour’s new shadow science and universities team – and to remind them of the centrality of social science in any credible strategy for innovation and growth. For Labour, Yvonne Fovargue, MP for Makerfield, assumes the science brief while Gordon Marsden, MP for Blackpool South… Read more »

ESRC survey to enhance support for early career social science researchers

A survey aimed to highlight how the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) could develop its support for postdoctoral social science researchers.